404 errors

Anchor text

We understand that many business owners are confused in terms of the terminology often used when describing Search Engine Optimisation jargon.

We have created this Seo glossary to help Cardiff business owners understand what exactly this SEO jargon actually means.

Therefore you will never be left scratching your head again when reading an Seo monthly report!


If you want to move away from your current seo agency or seo consultant and simplify your seo arrangement choose us today in Cardiff.

We offer low cost seo packages that are fixed in price, and we make sure our clients stay fully informed in terms of how their website is performing.


We can carry out quality Seo from £169.99 per month, in Cardiff, so if you ever need help and assistance with your Seo in South Wales, then why not give us a call today. 07902175110

We never therefore leave our clients in the dark about what is happening to their seo campaign

All our clients are kept fully informed each month about why we are using and adopting a certain seo strategy.

If you like our approach to uncomplicated seo, then why not get in contact today: 07902175110


A is for…

Anchor text

This is the small amount of text that is used to describe the hyperlink pointing to another website.

When you read information online there may be a few words that you can click on, in order to go onto another website to view related information, from that website, this is called the “anchor text” information.

Therefore this small amount of text that describes where the link’s pointing to is called “Anchor Text”.


This is Google’s platform for paid advertising area, that’s within the search engine results itself.

Say if you were searching for a product like a “washing machine” a small selection of featured websites may appear at the top of the search results (Top of the fold) and along the right-hand side normally.

These are called the Ad-Words section for advertising in the SERP’s.

This is where companies advertise their businesses in these prominent positions within the search engine results.

These are paid for and often called “Pay-per-click”.

Alt text

This is the text that describes an image on your website.

You can assist the search engines with understanding what your image shows on your website by labelling it with “Alt text”.

With that said Google has got very sophisticated algorithms and machine learning programs at its disposal, that now understand what is displayed within an image with out you even telling them! Yes that’s right without alt tags being attached by you to tell the search engine what the picture is about.

For more information, why not see this article on how Google understands images through machine learning. Google’s image recognition software, could this be used for seo?


Artificial Intelligence

AI has recently been integrated into Search Engine Optimisation, this is because of its use by the major search engines to understand how users interact with search engine results (That’s what we believe at this stage, yet how AI is used exactly we are unsure about at this time).

Artificial Intelligence or AI is thought to be being used to understand how long searchers spend on any particular website, and how they interact with that particular search engine result for example.

This helps the major search engines build up an understanding of how a user interacts with the website, in order to understand if this search result fulfilled that search query or not (For example if they bounced back into the search results, how many pages they viewed on a site, etc). of course this is just mere speculation, as the major search engines will not tell you exactly how they use their algorithms!

Although it is not clear how the major search engines exactly use artificial intelligence, many in online marketing believe that it is being used at the moment, and this is increasing in its use.

For more information on AI and how this could be used for seo benefit read here: AI & SEO


You may hear some search engine optimisation companies or seo agencies stating that they are going to carry out an “Seo Audit” on your website.

This commonly means that they are going to look at your website’s structure and look for area’s of improvement normally overall.

I.e its back-links, its content, and general crawl issues, that may be causing a problem such as re-directs for example.

A website audit normally gives a marketing consultant ideas for how they can improve your website, in terms of its visibility for keywords.

Perhaps a better navigation, site map’s in place, or better content in terms of addressing your target audience, may be advised depending on want your site needs.

We carry out SEO audits free of charge once our clients commit to an seo service from us in Cardiff.

To see our seo prices click here: seo service Cardiff price list.

Also to learn more about what goes into an SEO audit, you can click here, to see what a SEO Audit is all about.



You may have heard a lot about “the blog section of a website” being discussed in seo, this is because it’s a very important feature of seo and online marketing.

The blog section is so important in-terms of generating a conversation on social media and for seo purposes if done right.

Normally your website has a structure which showcases your main products or services and these pages may rarely change (Ever Green content). This is known as Ever Green Content that is the area of the website’s content that rarely changes.

For more information on what is Ever Green Content for SEO click here.

Your blog section therefore allows you to update your website with possible current events that are happening within your business or issues you wish to discuss with your target audience.

That means the information that is in the blog section of your website is important yet it is not suitable for the website’s main navigation area.

This is because the blog information is more current, more of the moment, and although advertises and markets your main products and services, does this in a more informative and less sales pitched and orientated way normally.

Typically, blog content, is current news stories or articles, that relate to that company, but they are of less commercial importance, so they are not normally in the websites main navigation or pages.

It therefore allows you to inform the users of your website about occurrences within your company, and once carried out correctly they can have search engine optimisation benefits as well.

For more information on what is blogging for seo click here


Black Hat

Black Hat Seo is the practice of carrying out online marketing in a way which is manipulative and looking to cheat the search engines into thinking your website is more authoritative than it actually is.

Black Hat Seo is normally used to increase a websites visibility, normally only for a short period of time, because of the spam fighting algorithms. Such as Hummingbird, Penguin and Panda from Google.

That is the major search engines use algorithms, to find black hat and spammy techniques that are being used, and penalize websites that are using low quality methods to increase their visibility.

The search engines then make sure that these types of websites get penalised, for using such unapproved techniques in Seo.

For more information see Penguin updates and Panda updates click here.

Black hat seo can take the form of keyword stuffing, cloaking, and also manipulative and poor quality back link practices.


Bounce Rate

The bounce rate of a website can be found through your Google Analytics.

It tells you how many visitors to your website have visited your site, and then bounced straight back into the search engine results.

Obviously an increased or high bounce rate is not good, as you want to attract targeted traffic to your website that stays on there for a long period of time.

A high bounce rate may suggest that people are coming to your page for information that does not answer their queries that well, so they bounce straight back into finding another website that does.


You may have heard of the term “browser” to describe the program you use to surf the internet.

There are now varying forms of website browsers, some which now have a direct bearing on Seo.

This is because when you consider Google’s Chrome browser, it features voice search.

Which some people believe means that the users of such a browser may ask more longer search queries (longer search terms i.e long-tail keywords, therefore changing possibly how you optimise that website.)

So seo is carried out with keywords that are optimised for more natural sounding search queries- as if you are speaking to a real person and not therefore a search engine when making the search.

For example “Where is the nearest restaurant to me” completed via voice searches, as opposed to “Restaurants in Cardiff” if you searching through manual typing, and not voice search.

This is therefore changing how we view optimising for different browsers, and keywords the underpinning of seo campaigns.

Because of Google’s Hummingbird update and the use of voice search, optimising websites has got very different from past techniques, of just optimising for keywords, related to your business.

You must now think of longer tail keywords, and better answering a searchers queries and common questions. Think quality user experience and not so much seo, think Hummingbird!



Citations are used to describe your business listings in normally directory sites, for the purposes of local Seo.

For example you may have registered your business with local directories, giving business information such as your address, phone number and name of your business for example (Nap information).

Citations have once again increased in importance since Google’s Pigeon update.

Citations can be used as a factor in helping local search engine optimisation factors, in terms of the search engine’s placing greater confidence in your businesses information if carried out correctly.

(That is if the citations are from high quality sources, and they are consistent across the web (Nap information) , in that they are accurate in the information they show.)

With that said you have to use quality citations, from quality websites, as listing your business on low quality directories can potentially harm your websites rankings. Think Penguin update and building low quality links, from what ever source, is not good for your seo campaign.

If you are unsure of how to carry out business citations, you may need the help and advice of a quality seo company or seo agency in Cardiff, to provide you guidance of how to build seo citations for local seo benefit.

If you need advice why not contact us in Cardiff. 


Caffeine update via Google describes an algorithm update via Google.

This change to the search engine means that they are enabled to speed up how they index and notice changes to websites.(Crawl and indexation)

This therefore increased their crawl and indexation rate for the search engine.


Chrome is Google’s website browser platform. Chrome has integrated within it a voice search feature within the search engines browser itself.

Content Management System

Sometimes called a CMS, content management systems are the type of website which allows owners or users of the website to update them easily.

That is CMS systems normally have a user-friendly interface, which allows the user to update a website with little coding knowledge.

Frequently used by many small businesses, because of their versatility in terms of allowing you to make changes for search engine optimisation benefits, and easy updating with new content such as blog and news posts.


Duplication Issues

Duplication issues are used to describe duplicate content on your website.

Many e-commerce sites use duplicate content, as they could possibly be selling hundreds if not thousands of products.

That is they sometimes use duplicated content across the product range for a specific type of item.

For example selling shoes, and having men’s shoes descriptions all the same, across all pages, could be potentially bad for SEO.

That is because the search engines reward high quality, unique information and not content which has been duplicated.

Duplicated content is not good for content marketing or search engine optimisation generally.

This is because duplicated content can cause problems with your website and could attract the attention of the Panda updates.

Google and other major search engines prefer unique high-quality content.

If you are finding the Panda Updates and carrying out content marketing confusing, then why not contact a professional Seo company or Seo agency today.

We carry out Seo that is low in cost in Cardiff, why not email us today.


You may have come across the term “Disavow” regarding handling the links that are incoming to your website.

The disavow process is used when you have incoming poor quality links that you wish to disconnect from your website.

The disavowing process allows you to stop your website from being connected to these low quality links.

Although with that said for the work to take place properly you have to contact Webmasters to try and get the links removed in the first instance.

The disavowing process should only be undertaken by Seo experts or professionals, this is because if it is done incorrectly it can damage or negatively impact your website ranking positions.


Doorway pages

Doorway pages describe a spammy and a low quality technique in Seo of creating links on a website in order to point to other websites without offering any value to the visitor.

For example say you were searching for “double glazing windows”, you may be presented with a website with multiple links for double glazing window offers.

This page may have been created just simply to make links to other websites to increase the number of incoming links pointing to a particular website.



Entities are a description that is used within the semantic web.

Many in search engine optimisation believe that the future of Seo is within the semantic web.

Semantic web uses its understanding of entities, to build a picture or wealth of information that describes that entity, so that it can present information within the search engine results directly in the serps. (Knowledge Vault and Knowledge Graph displaying in the serps directly).

Entities could be anything from a person, company or an occurrence that has happened.

Many believe that the future of Seo is in entity building, that is defining your business on the Internet so that the search engines have an in-depth understanding of what exactly your business is about.



Frames are used to describe the way in which a website gets laid out.

That is the content and layout of the website can be contained within what is known as frames.

How a website is displayed in the way information is presented is of great importance in terms of engaging your target audience.

This is especially important because of Google’s Hummingbird update.

Google’s Hummingbird updates look to present high-quality information that presents a good user experience in an interesting way.

Perhaps you would like to increase your websites visibility to increase the amount of traffic to your company’s website. Why not get in contact with a professional search engine optimisation company in Cardiff today.


Freshness has a lot to do with search engine optimisation, it is well known that if a website is regularly updated with high quality and relevant information then this can help your search engine optimisation campaign.

This is why it is important to update your websites blog or news section on a regular basis with high quality information, that will interest your target audience.



Google’s Algorithm

You may have heard a bit about Google algorithm changing or a change being made to the major search engine.

This is because Google is constantly changing its algorithm so that it presents higher quality search results to its users.

So if you hear about changes through say Hummingbird, Penguin or Panda updates this is because Google is changing its algorithm so that it can force out spam from the search engine results and replace it with high quality websites, that will satisfy a users queries from the search giant.

Google My Business

You may have about Google My Business this is where you can register your business with Google so that it can be presented possibly within the local search engine results.



Hummingbird is an algorithm change by Google, that focuses on presenting more accurate search results based on a more in-depth understanding of the search query.

That is Hummingbird matches more detailed search queries, with websites that offer a good user experience and better answer the queries questions.

The Google Hummingbird update had a significant change on the search engine results and also on Seo.

Before Seo companies in the past used to focus on optimising for keywords, although keywords are still important factor in Seo it is more important now to offer a rich user experience that better answers a searchers questions.


Indexation Issues

Indexation issues are issues that may relate to your website in terms of the search engines not able to crawl and index your website properly.

This could be because you have information contained on your website in such a way that the search engines cannot crawl that information therefore cannot index that particular website page.

For example in the past search engines have struggled to understand JavaScript and this could be a reason that your website has not been properly indexed.



JavaScript is a form of coding to present more dynamic scripts on your website.


Knowledge Panel

The Knowledge Panel is presented in some search engine results. That is that the major search engines such as Google, may present an answer directly within the search engine results.

For example if you were to ask questions relating to commonly known informational facts then the search engines may present these directly in the search engine results instead of you clicking on individual links.

Knowledge Carousel

Google may present in its search engine results what is known as a Knowledge Carousel.

Knowledge Carousel may be presented at the top of the screen in a form of sliding image show that runs across the screen.

For example if you were searching for films that were produced with a certain actor in them, then Google may present a list of films which includes the actor you have searched for in a more visual format.

This is of course as compared to the results, being shown in the traditional 10 organic search results placement.

Keyword Research

Keyword research is research that takes place normally through an Seo consultant or Seo agency, which does research to find out what people are entering into the search engines in order to find business say in Cardiff.

This is of course of vital importance to businesses, they want to appear in as many of the search engine results as they can that are related to their business or industry.

It is therefore up to the Seo consultant or Seo agency to find out what people are entering into the search engines and then to optimise a website so that it increases its prospects of being more visible for them key search terms.

Knowledge Graph

Google has what is called a knowledge graph this is linked into the semantic web.

Google uses its knowledge graph to build its understanding of entities across the web, and uses its vast information resources to build up knowledge on occurrences, people and businesses and other entities, so that it can present facts within its search engine results.

The information and what is collected in Google’s Knowledge Graph is said to be stored in what is called a Knowledge Vault.

This information once the search engine has enough confidence and accuracy in the information is then presented in the knowledge carousel and knowledge panel.

Keyword Stuffing

Keyword stuffing is a frowned upon technique, used by people participating in Black Hat Seo.

In the past, it used to be thought that in Seo that if you could put in as many related keywords relating to your business within websites content, then this would be good for the websites visibility, so basically increasing its visibility by keyword stuffing.

This is now simply an outdated technique in search engine optimisation, and is no longer used, and if used could attract the attention of the Panda updates which could penalize your website for using poor quality Seo methods.
Keyword Stuffing could be an example of stuffing a websites pages content with words that describe your business or geographic areas.

This has little benefit to the visitors of your website and creates a poor quality user experience.


Link Building

Link building is forming strategies that allow you to form a way of building links to your website.

Because of the Penguin updates it’s important now only to build high-quality, relevant back links to your business.

Building other forms of back links, such as low quality links that have no relevance, are likely to damage your websites visibility and ranking positions due to the Penguin updates.

Linking out

Linking out is linking to other websites from your own website.

You may want to do this when you have written a quality piece of information, and you wish to cite other areas on the internet were you found interesting information which helped you build your own article on your website. So basically referencing where you found your information.

The same rules apply to link building in that you should only link out to high-quality resources across the web, for example if you are linking out to a lot of websites that are low in quality and you do this just to create links to other websites then the your website could be penalized for poor quality linking practices.

This is because you could be linking to other websites to increase other websites visibility without adding any quality information that would interest a target audience..

Load speeds

Load speeds are used in Seo to describe how fast a page or website loads. That is a fast load speed is good because it helps a good user experience for your website.

People do not want to wait especially on mobile devices for sluggish or slow loading pages. If you have a slow loading website then why not contact your local search engine optimisation company for help. We carry out Seo which is low in cost, contact us today. Cardiff Seo companies.

Local search engine optimisation

Local search engine optimisation is optimising your website appears in geographic areas local to you where you wish your business to appear.

Is a common misconception of Seo that you can only get your website to appear within the area where you are physically located. This is not the case you can get your website visible in any area that you wish to do business. For example an Seo company could increase their visibility for your website in areas such as Cardiff, Bath and Bristol.

Is therefore possible to target any geographic region that you wish. If you know of a more profitable region that you can gain contracts, services or sell products within then search engine optimisation might be the service you need to invest in. Contact us today about local search engine optimisation services in Cardiff.


Meta Tags

Meta tags or meta description, are the area that you fill in once you have produced a page or post for your website. Most CMS systems will have an area where you can fill in your meta description and meta tag.

Your meta description will tell the search engines the title of what that page is about and a brief description about what that page is about and what it can offer the user.

This is the area that appears within the search engine results, and it is vitally important to get right as some website designers overlook this area. It can give visitors to your website the information they need in order to determine whether to click on your company’s website not. So why not optimise this area with special offers or incentives to get people to click on your meta description.

Machine Learning

The search engines are now moving into an era of artificial intelligence and machine learning. Many in search engine optimisation and online marketing believe that machine learning is taking place to understand how people interact with the search results.

That is to say that the major search engines could be understanding which websites best answer commonly asked queries presented to the search engine. Many believe that machine learning and artificial intelligence are the future of Seo, which places more of an emphasis on designing and creating high quality websites which answer a searches questions and satisfies the information that they are looking to obtain.

Mobile Optimised Website

is more important than ever to get your website mobile optimised. This is because in April 2015 Google is to launch a mobile algorithm change which will promote websites which are mobile optimised within the mobile search results, over those which have not been mobile enabled.

Therefore is important to get your website mobile optimised. This will also help with the user experience of your website in terms of allowing people to easily access the information on your website and to communicate with your business on mobile devices. This is a vital importance because it is believe that mobile searches are increasing, so why not mobile enabling your website you could potentially be missing out on business.



You may have heard of N AP in terms of local search engine optimisation. This refers to name, address and phone number of your business. This is to do with putting accurate citations of your business across the web.

It is of business importance to get high quality business listings which are accurate show your name address and phone number of your business across the web. This information must be consistent with what is on your website and which is up-to-date.

Inconsistent NAP details across the web could cause conflicts and is which may impact your local search visibility. So it is of vital importance that you get your N AP details consistent and accurate across the web.

No follow links. No follow links are links that have been earned from other websites, that have chosen to link to you but they do not pass what is called link juice.

No follow links are still important in terms of diversifying your back link profile. That is for a back link profile to look natural, it should contain no follow links. You should therefore look for a mix of no follow link and do follow links, but more important than anything is that the links are high quality and naturally built.

Organic Seo

Organic Seo is increasing your search engine rankings, by organic means so that you appear higher within the organic search results. The organic search results make up the main body of the search results.


Outreaching is the process of contacting relevant and high quality websites to see if they are interested in publishing your content marketing work.

Through outreaching you may find websites which are relevant to your business that are high in quality who want to share your articles with their audience. In return for your efforts of creating content marketing you could be rewarded with a back link pointing back to your website.

Out Linking

Out linking is the process of referencing other websites during your content marketing work.

For example you may find another high quality piece of content marketing or information on the web, and you may wish to reference this in your content marketing work.

By referencing your sources you are therefore “out linking” to where you found this information, some say in search engine optimisation this allows the search engines to understand and piece together where you got the information from which can have some Seo benefit if more authority can be placed on such information.


Panda Updates

The panda updates will a sequence of updates via Google, that look to assess on-site quality issues.

That is they look for low quality content such as keyword stuffing, duplicate content or spun articles.

The panda updates then look to remove low quality content from the search engine results, with the overall aim of increasing the quality of search engine results.


Penguin updates, are a sequence of updates via Google and look to assess the quality of back links pointing to your website.

Penguin looks for low quality links that have been built to your website, website with an abundance of low quality links can be penalised through this search engine algorithm change.


The pigeon update was an algorithm change that changed the local search engine results. Many commentated that it shook up the local business search results and what is commonly referred to as the seven pack greatly reduced in number to a three pack and even a to pack.


Commonly referred to as a search query, this describes what is entered into the search engines to find information on. Search engine optimisation companies will optimise a website for search query phrases which are also referred to as keywords.


Responsive is often used to describe the website which is mobile enabled, or has been optimised for smaller screens such as tablets or smartphones.

Semantic Web

The semantic web is the search engines gaining knowledge on what is known as entities. Entities could be anything from an occurrence, people or a company search engines build up knowledge of this information to get a better understanding to place within their knowledge grafts.

Many in search engine optimisation believe that the semantic web allows search engines to better understand information and data, and to crosscheck from multiple sources. Once the search engines have confidence in a certain date assess they can then present such information directly within the search engine results such as the search engine knowledge panel or what is also known as the knowledge graph carousel.

Social Media Optimisation

Social media is optimisation is using social media to increase your company’s visibility and brand awareness. This can help people finding your websites content so that it is shared and opens the possibility of generating back links.


Seo stands for search engine optimisation, which is the process of optimising a website. This can be through content marketing, keyword research or other on-site optimisation techniques to increase the visibility of a website.


Spam is used to describe a technique that is used to manipulate the search engine results. You may have heard of spammy techniques being used to manipulate the search engine results in terms of generating spammy back links or generating spammy content marketing.

The ambition is to gain quick results through manipulating the search engine results, these techniques are often frowned upon by the search engines and can mean that a website gets penalised which can damage a websites ranking ability.


Spiders are used to describe coding used by the search engines to crawl a websites information. The spiders will look for changes or amendments made your website so they can update and reindex where your website should be in the search engine rankings.


SERPs stand for search engine results pages, that are presented once you ask the search engines a question or query. They are therefore the search engine results.

Trust flow

Trust flow is used to describe the amount of trust that flows from a particular back link. A back link that is high in trust flow or high authority can be considered in some cases to be a back link that might be worth generating. Remember you have to be very careful about the back links that you generate for your website in that they have to be high in quality and relevant to your website.

Low quality back links can be deemed and versed to your website performance, this is because low quality links can be found through the Google Penguin update. This means that your website rankings can potentially be damaged if you have low quality back links pointing to your website.

Title Tags

Title tags a very important part of Seo, they are the part of your content marketing that you markup as titles. These are normally numbered from H1 right through to hate six, which allow you to scale the amount of importance of each head attack.


User Experience

User experience is used to describe creating a positive user experience for your users of your website. It is considered by many search engine optimiser is that it is of paramount importance to create a good user experience when visiting your website to keep users on site for as long as possible.

Some in search engine optimisation believe that is important create a good user experience so that users interact with your website in a positive way and spend a long period of time on site which many believe contributes to ranking signals.

That is by creating a positive user experience, you are more likely to be linked to in this also sends positive signals about your website as it is accurately answering the information that users have wanted to obtain from the search engine results.

URL Friendly

Search engine optimisation URL friendly URLs, basically means that there are a few words within the URL itself which describes that page. This means you have added a few words that have Seo benefit within the URL. You can most commonly be entered in content management systems easily by adding a few words to the URL extension which describe the page and keyword you are trying to rank for.

With that said you cannot keyword stuffed or over optimise URL as this is considered poor practice in search engine optimisation.

Voice Search

Voice search is becoming a more common form of searching for information on the Internet, especially through browsers such as Google’s chrome browser.

Many believe that voice search is the future of search engine optimisation, in terms that you must optimise your keywords and information on your page so that it is more optimise for longer search terms. It is thought that using voice search people enter more longer search terms which are more detailed and therefore you must adapt to this and make sure that your website is optimised for these more complicated search strings.

White hat. White hat, refers to an undertaking search engine optimisation in a way which is considered best practice at any one time and that is unlikely to float the rulebook in terms of best practice standards set by the major search engines.

What is considered as white hat is constantly changing, and the rulebook of the search engines is constantly adapting, to stay on top of what is considered white hat and what is considered black hat you should refer to your search engines Webmaster guidelines.